A new enneagram point of view…

Frédéric Schmitt

missing pictures and illustration sorry, some bugs

Mahmoud Farshian, Iranian painter, arrangment


Turning to the Source: Enneagram Revisited

Bernadette Bollero-Schmitt et Frédéric Schmit MD homeopath



We would like to introduce you to a novel reading of the Enneagram. The Enneagram is like a puzzle, and each player must bring their own piece to the puzzle whatever it may be.

If we have only one or a few pieces it will not allow us to see the entire puzzle, and it will remain necessarily incomplete.

One of the more blocking factors to the evolution of science is the adhesion to incomplete theories as if they represented the entire reality. It’s called dogma. In dogma there is also an unconscious tyranny imposed over the followers: “You cannot deviate from the script, because I am the Truth”. So we have an unconscious fear of deviating and of punishment; that is blocking one’s creativity.

In the Taoist cycle of evolution, each time when yang becomes old, the young yin begins to appear, and vice versa. Or yang in its extreme turns into Yin and Yin in its extreme turns into Yang.

We strongly feel that the Enneagram has reached a point of maturity where it necessarily will move towards a new beginning of a yin rebirth. These two phases of the cycle cannot exist one without the other, and mutually complete each other.

So we are pleased to propose to the enneagram community a new paradigm, not only a few new pieces of the puzzle, but also new and open angles of vision.

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Enneagram and Self Mandala

Bernadette Bollero-Schmitt

Frédéric Schmitt, MD, homéopath.

Auvergne 2006


This article was written in 2006 and covers the research since 2000 to 2006 only .

For more whole and  complete  research , please, you can read our articles in Enneagram Montly, specially on the subtypes ( edited on this blog also ).

Some books are already written, but are only courses’s material for advanced students

A book for public is being written …


See also, about the History of the Enneagram , some more material





Enneagram is a tool whose origin is mysterious. Soufis call it the sign of presence of God. We are indebted with G.I. Gurdjieff to have revealed, in the years 1920, for the first time in the west this remarkable system. However its systematic use in comprehension and analysis of human psyche  goes up in Oscar Ichazo in the years 1960. Laleh Bakthiar published a remarkable work in 1994 raising for the first time the veil on the soufi approach of enneagram.

Bernadette knew enneagram in contact with her Master, Venerable Dhiravamsa, respected Buddhist teacher, having himself studied it with Claudio Naranjo in the years 1970.

Frederic is a doctor, classical homeopath since 1986, also Dhiravamsa student.


In the years 2000, Bernadette and Frederic, discovered the keys allowing to apply enneagram to homeopathy. It proves that these two systems have a very great similarity. They present two entrance doors: for enneagram the three centers and the three subtypes, for homeopathy, the three miasmas and the three kingdoms. Their discovery consisted in putting in parallel the three centers and three miasmas as well as the three subtypes and the three kingdom.


Enneagram Center Subtype
Homeopathy Miasma Kingdom


In order to understand the importance of this discovery, it is necessary to recall that homeopathic therapeutic treats the individual as a whole in his three dimensions physical, energetic and psychic.


Samuel Hahnemann, founder of the Homeopathy


In this medical approach, the practice showed that a single substance will balance a single individual. This substance is called the Simillimum. All the quest of the homeopath pratictionner is to determine this famous graal : the Simillimum.

In homeopathy, in order to facilitate this research, the experts are accustomed to diagnosing as a preliminary the miasma and the kingdom of their patients. There are three miasmas (psora, sycosis and luesis) as well as three kingdom (mineral, animal, plant). The correct diagnosis of miasma and kingdom will point towards a certain group of specific remedies. However this research is difficult, because there exists nearly 3000 remedies in the homeopathic pharmacopeia. So that the homeopaths use only approximately a hundred of these remedies in 80% of the cases.

The discovery of Bernadette and Frederic made it possible to largely facilitate the diagnosis of miasma and kingdom. Indeed, their clinical practice showed that the prevalent center in the enneagram determines dominating miasma and in the same way the prevalent subtype that of the dominating kingdom. This is objectified in the following table :


Centers Instinctive Emotional Mental
Miasmas Luesis Psora Sycosis



Subtypes Selfpreservation Sexual Social
Kingdoms Mineral Animal Vegetal


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History of the enneagram

Bernadette and Frederic Schmitt


From Enneagram Monthly, issue 215, March 2015

In the 1950’s, Oscar Ichazo (born in Bolivia in 1931) was invited to participate in a study group of high-ranking European and Oriental mystics in Buenos Aires, Argentina, composed of Martinists, Theosophists, Rosicrucians and Anthroposophists. Ichazo served them coffee, and they taught him Kabbalah, Sufism, Yoga, Zen and techniques from the Gurdjieff work. (see also EM issues 21, 22, and 23)

Quoting Ichazo:

“This was around 1950, and (one) man invited me to Buenos Aires, where I was involved with a group of mystics, many of whom were seventy or eighty years old when I met them. . . . None of them was South American. They were Europeans or from the Middle East” (Extract from “Interviews with Oscar Ichazo, a 1982 Arica Institute publication”).

According to Claudio Naranjo, Ichazo said specifically that he was handed the whole Tradition that is spread in many branches around the world in various cultures. He was given “the whole works” and the mission of translating it into Western terms.

One of the only names Ichazo has ever mentioned publicly as a teacher and source for him, is Leo Costet de Mascheville, a French spiritual teacher. Who was this man, and how could he be implicated in the genesis of the enneagram?




Leo Costet de Mascheville

We begin the story with his Father, Albert Raymond Costet-Conde de Mascheville (1872 -1943) born in Valence, France.

In 1895 at the age of 23 he became a Delegate of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order founded by Papus (his real name: Dr. Gerard Encausse, a French medical doctor who founded the Martinist Order-L’ordre Martiniste- in 1887).

1901: birth of his son, Leo Costet de Mascheville (1901-1970) in France.

In 1910 he and his family left France and moved to Argentina arriving on February 26, 1910 in Buenos Aires.

In 1920 Albert Costet initiated his son Leo into the Martinist Order.


Léo Costet de Masheville


Albert Costet sends his son Leo to France on a special mission to re-connect with the Traditional Esoteric Orders of Martinism and the Kabalístic Rosy-Cross.

On March 22, 1927 Albert Costet is made Delegate of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order of Papus, and starts the Order Kabalistica of the Rosy-Cross in the city of Curitiba, (Brazil).

1932: Leo Costet is transferred (probably on advice of his father) to Montevideo (Uruguay) and founds the esoteric study group GIDEE (Groupe d’études ésotériques) based on the Martinist Order of Papus..

In 1936 Albert Costet moves to Sao Paulo, and appoints his son as President of the Martinist-Order.

On December 23, 1939, the Constitution of the Martinist Order of South America is proclaimed in Porte Alegre, Brazil uniting all Martinists of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

1941: Leo Costet de Mascheville becomes “Sri Sevananda swami” and his Indian guru Subrahmanyananda  makes him his the successor in the lineage of Suddha Dharma.

1949: Leo Costet founded “l’association mystique occidentale-Western Mystical Association” in Montevideo (Urugay) which soon became a center for convergence of different spiritual streams such as Suddha Dharma, Osiris Egyptian Ritual, Ramakrishna Ashram from  Kriya Yoga, Sufi, Martinist Order, Maîtreya Mahasangah, Rose-Croix Order, Bodhi Dharma Zen,…

1953: he went to Resende, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), where he acquired a very large area to establish an Ashram that became famous in Brazil and all over the world.

Everything is in concordance indicating that it was this group of mystics in Buenos Aires in which Ichazo was included, this group created by Albert and then led by Leo Costet de Mascheville \.

Given that the Maschevilles were the representatives of the Martinist Order in South America, it’s interesting to trace back the sources of this teachings to its beginning with Papus.

Papus and the Martinist Order

Papus (1865-1916) founded the Martinist Order in 1887. He was deeply immersed with the European occultist spring and publicly claimed to be the depository of the teaching of the “initiate” Louis-Claude de Saint Martin (1743-1803) who in turn gave credit for his teachings to Martinès de Pasqually (1727-1774). The name “Martinist” came from the name of “Saint Martin” but de Pasqually was the real inspirer of the Martinist Order.

To emphasize the importance of the Kabbalah in the Martinist Order, here’s an excerpt from their French website (http://www.martiniste.org): “Kabbalah is the book of the occult tradition of Israel. It should be in the hands of every man who wishes to deepen the mystery of life, who wonders what the origin and destiny of the existence is, and  would like to explore the realm of the invisible to understand relations with the visible world.”

It’s important to know that Kabbalah as taught by the Martinist Order as well as different European esoteric and occultist movements is not the Jewish Kabbalah but a more syncretic form usually called Christian Kabbalah.


Jewish Kabbalah

In 1174, the publication of a strange and enigmatic text in Southern France known as the Bahir was by most commentators, ancient and modern, regarded as the true beginning of Kabbalah. Attempts to establish its authorship or provenance have been largely unsuccessful. The main focus for Kabbalah then moved to Northern Spain, where its salient conceptions attained a stable form, culminating in the publication of the most important and influential of Kabbalistic texts, the Zohar. Moses de León (c. 1250 – 1305) the Spanish rabbi and Kabbalist is thought to have been its author or redactor. The Zohar is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism, mythical cosmogony and mystical psychology.

Christian Kabbalah

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Hermes / Mercury God of messengers and thieves


Auvergne, Winter 2006

sorry for approximative translation

Hermes / Mercury, God of commerce and thieves finds its place in the 8th sphere of Kabbalah, named Hod, symbolizing Pure Intelligence and the power of conceptualization.

This 8th sephirah corresponds to the type 7 of the Enneagram,

Here  a few key words : intelligence, abstraction, conceptualization, rationalization, order, polemic, illusion, distortion, trickery, lying, deceit, dishonesty, mental image, magic, velocity, vivacity, vision of splendor, eternity, youth and of course the most important, the hermaphrodite (masculine-feminine). We also find restriction, inhibition, rigidity.

In its luminous aspect, Hod corresponds to the power of conceptualization, of intelligibility of man, to his power of discernment and knowledge (the caduceus) enabling him to communicate with the most subtle plans of the Divine.

In its obscure side, it refers to a notion of excessive logic, doubt and rationalization, wandering, blindness, illusion, lying, cunning, distortion and travesty of reality. Man remains hermetically closed to the divine spheres and to the essence of things (C. R. Payeur).

How does this fact that these wonderful keywords appear in any textbooks and courses of Enneagram refering to Kabbalah ?

By what incredible magic trick, the key words, lying, deceit, dishonesty, masculine / feminine, are found in type 3?

And what about the gluttony ranked in type 7 ?

Or is it still this thief of Mercury who stole the crown from his rival father, the good, powerful and magnanimous King / Jupiter, attributed to Hesed, the 4th sephirah, and corresponding to the type 3 of the enneagram and of which a few key words, according to CR Payeur: Grace, righteousness, obedience, conformism, idolatry, superficiality, hypocrisy, excess zeal, enthusiasm, productivity, abundance, fructification, insecurity, greed, gluttony, waste.

By what skillful subterfuge the 7 is described in the Enneagram as a rude gluttonous, and planner, well in his life and in his sneakers. ?

Why Ichazo’s description of the schizotypal , how precious, concerning the 7, according to the DSM 4, is obliterated from the textbooks: phobia and social embarrassment, shyness and complexity, cognitive and perceptual distortions, magical thinking, attraction for the paranormal , etc. (the 7 Yin type according to us).

How many people  type 7  I have met , very often men, who are classified in type 3, or 5 or 6  by default, of these  multiple knowledge and subtleties peculiar to the enneagram.


What about those many keywords distributed pell-mells around the enneagram, like an unbelievable deck of cards?

Will the Enneagram one day give birth to all its secrets?

Type 3 is identified to his persona. He lost contact with his true Self. The persona is a part of the collective unconscious that is appropriated so as to be socially acceptable. One conforms to an image, to a model in an exaggerated way, one passes his personal worries after the collective needs. The good King / Hesed put himself at the service of his people. He is upright and has only one word and does not like to disappoint. He identifies himself with the task to be accomplished which in general is Olympian.

Hod / type 7 symbolizes the power of conceptualization and mentalization (Mercury). He has multiple projects that he has difficulty to follow, he disperses and struggles to follow his commitments. His vision is fragmentary and linear. (Left brain / mental-analytic)

Hesed / type 3 symbolizes the power of synthesis and anabolism (Jupiter). He slaughters a ton of work by excessive conformity, anticipation and excess zeal. His vision is panoramic, global and synthetic. (Right brain / mental-synthetic )


The 72 Names of God or Angels in the zodiac

The 72 “Angels” require a little explanation.

Their origin goes back to the Hebrew tradition, and comes from the Psalm of the bible which speaks of the exodus and from which are drawn the 72 names of God.

This Psalm has three sentences of 72 letters each. By taking the first three letters of each of the three sentences you get a first name and so forth to give 72 names which each have 3 letters. The Hebrew tradition arranges the 72 names on the circle of the Zodiac from the 0 ° of Aries and thus each name corresponds to 5°. Thus, each sign of the Zodiac (30 °) contains 6 names (6 X 12 = 72).

This was the support of various spiritual practices in this tradition. During the Italian renaissance, some synergy occurs between the Jewish and Christian traditions, and the 72 names of God became 72 angels.

So please understand these Angels not as external beings, but as divine energies symbolized on the Zodiac and that we carry inside us.




The Rosace of the 72 Angels around the zodiac


There are 4 other levels of distribution of these Angels linked to the 4 Elements in this order Earth Water Fire Air.

If we put one Angel for 5 ° we get the Angel of Earth or the angel that governs the physical plane. If we put an Angel by degree (72 angels will occupy therefore 72 degrees and there will be 5 rounds of 72 angel on the year) it will gives us approximately an Angel by day, and this corresponds to the Angel of the water or the emotional Angel.

If one put the 72 Angels on a week (7.2 degree exactly, there will be 50 cycles of 72 angels) we get the Angel of fire or Angel of intuition. If we put the 72 angels on a day we get the Angel of Air or Angel of the mental. And finally, (but there we’ll talk another day) the 5 ° Angel is the Angel of Space or Angel of our deepest identity.

His knowledge is obtained through analogy with the Enneagram.


The 72 Angels or Archetypes in the Enneagram :

The link we did between these 72 energies and the Enneagram is possible because in our model we identified 8 subtypes (4 yin and yang 4 = 8) combining with the 9 types (8 X 9 = 72). The fourth subtype being as you know it now, the famous Sxvenus subtype, opposed to the Sxmars subytpe (See article in Enneagram Monthly  , issue 211 and 224 )

The link made between the 72 angels and 72 archetypes of the Enneagram has not been it following our inspiration or understanding but by a quite elaborate mathematical calculation and that we eventually checked in practice by observation. 

I say this because when we say that such an Angel is linked to such type of the Enneagram is not by a psychological reflection that we got there but by a logic mathematical calculation, which is much deeper.

Thus these 72 Angels or Archetypes of the Enneagram do not rank in the order of the zodiac (the first Angel in type 1, etc.), but according to a very precise order related to the four elements and their correspondences with the eight subtypes of each 9 Types

We have Angels of Fire, two by type,  so 18 Angels of Fire, then 18 Angels of Water, then Air, then Earth, which makes 72 Angels in total that cover the whole  Model of the “ Enneagram as we have elaborated it.

As example, for  type 1 :

Fire Yang  1(sexua l Mars) : Angel Vehuel n° 1

Fire Yin 1   (sexual Mars ): Angel Jeliel n°2


Air Yang 1 (social ) : Angel Aniel n° 37

Air Yin 1 (social ) : Angel Haamiah n°38

For copyright reasons, we cannot publish here the totality of the  Angels classification in the Enneagram. Thanks for understanding

To be  followed, if you like it …

See more on our FB group : “Enneagram and Beyond… ” https://www.facebook.com/groups/618113078366315/?ref=bookmarks


The return of Proserpine

Frederic Leighton


About Proserpine, here is a short excerpt of an article that should appear soon.

This excerpt completes a previous post on this blog, devoted to Angel Rochel

The Proserpine Complex

The mysteries of Eleusis, the main and oldest cult of the Greek religion, lasted about 2000 years (-1450 to + 392). They were closely connected to the myth of Demeter and Persephone.

The myth reflects the notion of transformation and the cyclical nature of life. Existence does not stop with death because there is no death; There is only the change from one state of being to another, symbolized by the decomposition of the seed in the earth and its reappearance in the form of a living being which rises towards the light.

Thus the initiations to the mysteries of Eleusis were probably close to what the survivors of the experiments of imminent death (EMI) report or what is experienced in transpersonal therapy, during the holotropic breathing sessions (what the psychiatrist Stanislav Grof called the perinatal matrices).

There is, then, in the complex of Proserpine a strong need for spiritual initiation to the truths of life and death, of deep exploration of the psyche and of complete and radical transformation of being without compromise for worldliness and the superficial visions of reality. These people are shamans, spiritual healers, mediums. They have a great aptitude for the phenomena of trance, they have visions and they naturally have psychic powers – healing, clairvoyance, telepathy, …

The dynamics of Proserpine through myth is centered around fusion and separation, possession and emancipation, ignorance and knowledge.

In the first part of his life the Proserpine individual is in fusion with or possessed by one or both his parents, and possibly later by a spouse.

She is too kind, unable to say no, hard to know and to respect her limits, victim, impotent, present of compassion, sensitive to the needs of others, too emotional, difficult to name emotions, imaginative, great need to withdraw, to isolate himself, a child who plays alone, his sensitivity does not conform to family norms, unorthodox, unconventional, traumas in childhood physical or psychic, woman child unaware of its sexual attractiveness.

Although the subject has propensities to mystical work, spirituality often bursts into life suddenly or even brutally in the form of mystical experiences, meeting with a partner or a master. This can also be the result of separation or grief.

This event will initiate the demerger, the separation from the family environment, which often leads to quite strong reactions from those who exercised a power over her (like Demeter).

From this moment the subject Proserpine will start a process of reintegration of his inner power. She is able to tell her truth rather than wanting to please others, knows how to put healthy limits, knows how to take care of her, has reinstated her masculine interior, the animus, which means that she developed her affirmed nature, and active, music, nature and mystical experiences recharge it, it is mystical, visionary, connected with spiritual guides and minds, it becomes capable of guiding others in their subterranean worlds, with great finesse, compassion, of intuition and of wisdom.

Sometimes, and this is the other aspect of the Proserpine planet, the subject will identify with Demeter, the possessive, jealous, vindictive and cruel mother who regents and instrumentalises those around her, her partner and her children. If those on whom it exercises its power try to get rid of it, it can become very hard or emotionally blackmail. It is often at this point that she begins a process of transformation where she can accept that loving attention to her loved ones goes hand in hand with a full and complete acceptance of the suffering of a separation that sooner or later come.

Finally, Proserpine teaches us to become aware of the impermanence of phenomena and of human life in particular. It teaches us to face the fear of death in order to do the work of growth and let go. To see beyond the captivating shimmering of appearances, to transcend the attachment to possession in order to realize the non-existence of phenomena and the Self, is the ultimate teaching delivered by Proserpine.

To be continued …

The Three Graces of Sandro Botticelli


One of the most interesting systems is Astrology because it describes the cycles of life, also well outer (the events), somatic (chronobiology) than those of our emotions. You can of course use the planetary positions, but in our practice by the attention and awareness we can observe the macrocycles (from birth to death) and the microcycles of our existence. For this the twelve signs of the Zodiac are an excellent model.

The twelve signs are divided into four quarters: East – spring (child), South – summer (maturity), West – fall (decline) and North – winter (finiteness). Each quarter is divided into three signs,

the first is Cardinal (entry into the season solstice or Equinox), the second fixed (the middle of the season) and the third Mutable (the phase of transition with the following season). Cardinal = drive, creation, dynamism, action, heat, speed. Fixed = receptive, slowness, coldness, stability. Mutable = Exchange, communication, relationship, instability, change, mutation.

The child is born and develops very quickly this is the dynamic phase (Aries). Then phase of stabilization (Taurus), finally it opens to the outer world from adolescence until age 21 (Gemini). Etc…This can apply to a project, a company, a relationship, etc…

There are several links with the Enneagram: types 1 2 and 3 are Cardinal, 4, 5 and 6 fixed and 7, 8 and 9 mutable. Then there is some sub cycles: 4, 7 and 1 are Cardinal, 2, 5, 8 are fixed and 3, 6 and 9 are mutable.

So the 1 is cardinal cardinal, 2 cardinal fixed and the 3 cardinal mutable. 4 is fixed fixed 5 cardinal fixed and 6 fixed mutable 7 is mutable cardinal, the 8 mutable fixed and 9 mutable mutable. Combined with the 4 subtypes Earth, water, Air and fire, we get for example
the 1 sx fire = cardinal cardinal fire = first decan of Aries
the 1 sx water = cardinal cardinal water = first decan of Cancer
the 1 air (social) = cardinal cardinal Air = first decan of the Balance
1 earth (self-preservation) = cardinal cardinal Earth = first decan of Capricorn

We can therefore say that the 1 is cardinal/cardinal so particularly committed towards a goal, dynamic, hyperactive, wanting to control and do not support barriers. If the 1 is sx fire, it is the first decan of Aries : speed impatience and anger dominates. If the 1 is sx water, it’s the first decan of Cancer, need for harmony in the couple, if the 1 is (social) air, it’s the first decan of Libra, a lot of hesitation and need for harmony in social relations, if the 1 is Earth (self preservation): it’s the first decan of Capricorn, domination by material (wants a safe status).

September 8, feast of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary inspires us to talk about the astrological sign of Virgo and Bacchus his astrological regent and see their links with the Enneagram.

There is a similarity between the myth of Dionysus/Bacchus and that of Christ. Benedict XVI notes in his Jesus of Nazareth: “as […] The Lord gave the bread and wine as the carriers of the new Covenant, it is certainly not forbidden to think […] and to see reflected in the Cana story the mystery of the Logos and its cosmic liturgy, in which the myth of Dionysus [Bacchus] is completely transformed while being driven to his hidden truth. »

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Here is an exerpt of the type 6 in our new book in process: the book of integrative typology


Spiritual archetype: Aphrodite

Aphrodite two main aspects are Victory and Beauty.

Victory refers to its attributes of perseverance, determination, endurance and the power to cut through all obstacles and hesitations which stand in the way of realizing one’s aspiration. Aphrodite takes decision, stands firm forever and never regrets (change one’s mind) even in the face of death. It can be said that the ultimate victory is that over death. Aphrodite is not a mortal who fears death and is thereby likely “to regret” in the face of death. It’s absolute confidence.

Beauty refers to the realm of feeling, sentiment, clarity, brightness, sincerity, truth, faith, love, creativity and procreative instinct of the Goddess Aphrodite. It’s the rapture to perceive divine presence in everything.

Identity Nucleus

The source of suffering of any kind is always linked to the duality (Ego consciousness) and the separation of our true spiritual nature. In the type 6, the loss of Victory give rise to insecurity and the loss of Beauty (and so to self-esteem) to stained feeling. The spiritual ego is identified with the jealous, controling and fault-finding Primal Father. The primitive ego is identified with the extase whose most instinctive expression is raw sexual enjoyment and possession. In consequence, relation ego perceives pleasure as impure and feels himself stained. The fear of punishment gives him a tremendous feeling of vulnerability, guilt and self-doubt, with no secure place in the world. They can compensate in two ways. The yin compensation is by trying to regain the estim of the Father with a strong sense of loyality. The yang compensation is by rebelling against an authority that is perceived as unfair, oppressive and tyrannical.


fleurs multicolores


Naranjo is credited to have the first put the personality disorders of DSM IV in the Enneagram (in character and neurosis), but Ichazo before propounded his own classification.

  Ichazo Naranjo
Type 1 Obsessive-Compulsive Obsessive-Compulsive
Type 2 Narcissistic Histrionic
Type 3 Histrionic X
Type 4 Borderline Masochistic
Type 5 Schizoid or Anti-Social Schizoïd
Type 6 Paranoid Paranoid
Type 7 Schizotypal Narcissic
Type 8 Passive-Aggressive Sadistic
Type 9 Avoidant/Dependent Dependant


Beside the fact that these two classifications shows some huge differences that nobody has pointed out nor clarified (why 7 is narcissicist in one and schizotypal in the other ??), we question the even fact to classify Axis II diagnostic system of DSM-IV in the nine enneatypes.

Second, we question also the tendency to pathologize both the types and the subtypes by giving pathologizing names. Each type or subtypes can be described on the whole spectrum from pathology to psychological maturation and spiritual qualities.

Jeffrey Young an American psychologist works on a new therapy that deals with Early Maladaptive Schemas (Schema Therapy). Early Maladaptive Schemas are self-defeating emotional and cognitive patterns that begin early in our development and repeat throughout life. According to this definition, an individual’s behavior is not part of the schema itself; Young theorizes that “maladaptive behaviors develop as responses to a schema”. Thus behaviors are driven by schemas but are not part of schemas.

As note Jeffrey Young (in his book, Schema Therapy), “we believe that the Axis II diagnostic system in DSM-IV is seriously flawed. In an attempt to establish criteria based on observable behaviors, the developers have lost the essence of both what distinguishes Axis I from Axis II disorders and what makes chronic disorders hard to treat. According to our model, internal schemas lie at the core of personality disorders and the behavioral patterns in DSM-IV are primarily responses to the core schemas.For most DSM-IV categories, the coping behaviors are the personality disorders. Many diagnostic criteria are lists of coping responses”.

In our fifteen years of clinical observations on more than 2000 subjects, we clearly saw that the personality disorders of the DSM IV, as behavioral pattern, is connected to the subtypes rather than the types that are linked to the cognitive and emotional core schemas.

For example, type 6 is the schema of vulnerability. If the subtype is more introverted, the individual will surrender to his schema (phobic 6), and if he is more extraverted he will counter attack his schema (counter phobic 6). The type 7 is the schema of self-sacrifice. If the subtype is introverted, he will surrender to the schema (sacrifice) and if he is extraverted he will counter attack it (counter sacrifice or epicurean). It’s exactly the same with the nine types as we already stated earlier (#EM 206). Note that we have adapted Jeffrey Young schema therapy to our new enneagram model, and our results show slight differences.

We classify personality disorders in the subtypes like that (based on Reich five character structures) : sx mars : obsessive compulsive, sx venus : histrionic, sc : masochistic, sp : narcissic, st : schizoid (sx : sexual, sc : social, sp : self preservation, st : spiritual subtypes).

The consequences are that every type can be histrionic (and not only the 2), every type can be narcissic (and not only the 7), every type can be obsessive compulsive (and not only the 1), every type can be masochistic (and not only the 4), every type can be schizoid (and not only the 5).

Most of people say a type is not a behavior, although most of the time, we can hear such things as: he is a 4 because he is an artist, he is a 5 because he is a loner, he is a 1 because he is perfectionist, he is a 8 because he is strong, and so on… but don’t you think that artist, loner, perfectionist, strong… sounds like behavior?

Our goal is to re define types and subtypes in that sense:

  • Nine types and five subtypes are two separate systems that mix together like abscissa and ordinate to define the character of an individual.
  • Both types and subtypes can be defined through a whole spectrum from pathology to psychological and spiritual qualities.
  • Types are more connected to cognitive and emotional level (schema); subtypes are more connected to behavioral response.


That’s the topic of the present article for subtypes.

To be published soon in Enneagram Monthly. Stay tuned !