Naranjo is credited to have the first put the personality disorders (PD) of DSM IV in the Enneagram (in character and neurosis), but Ichazo before propouned his own classification.
|Type 5||Schizoid or Anti-Social||Schizoïd|
As note Jeffrey Young (in his book, Shema Therapy), the different personality disorders of the DSM IV correspond mainly to behavior disorders. Young states that the core personality schema is cognitive and emotional, and behavior is a defense mechanism to cope with the schema. In our clinical observations since fifteen years, we clearly see that ennea-types is connected to cognitive and emotional schemas, and subtypes to the behavioral defense mechanism. For example, type 6 is schema of vulnerability. If the subtype is more introverted, the individual will surrender to his schema (phobic 6), and if he is more extraverted he will counter attack his schema (counter phobic 6). It’s exactly the same with the nine types as we already stated earlier (#Enneagram Monthly, Issue N° 206)
Our clinical observations confirm the statement of Young : the personality disorders of the DSM IV is more connected to the subtypes (behavioral defense mechanisms) rather than the types (core personality schemas).
- sx mars : obsessive compulsive PD,
- sx venus : histrionic PD,
- sc : masochistic PD,
- sp : narcissic PD,
- st : schizoid PD
(sx : sexual, sc : social, sp : self preservation, st : spiritual).
The consequences is that every type can be histrionic (and not only the 2), every type can be narcissic (and not only the 7), every type can be obsessive compulsive (and not only the 1), every type can be masochistic (and not only the 4), every type can be schizoid (and not only the 5).
Most of people say a type is not a behavior, although most of the time, we can hear such things as : he is a 4 because he is an artist, he is a 5 because he is a loner, he is a 1 because he is perfectionist, he is a 8 because he is strong, and so on… but don’t you think that artist, loner, perfectionist, strong… sounds like behavior ?
We need to re define ennea-types for what they are : distortion of perception on a cognitive and emotional level, and subtypes for what they are : behavioral defense mechanisms.
We will deepen that topic in the next article on enneagram monthly.
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