Modèle du Diamant
I would like to expose to you , in the light of our work on the Schema Therapies and the Enneagram and through many examples this so particular type.
First at all let’s give some definition of what is a type, in opposite of the other aspect of our individual configuration , that is the famous “Subtype”, which is, as I usually say, a very bad term, indeed.
Jeffrey Young an American psychologist works on a new therapy that deals with Early Maladaptive Schemas (Schema Therapy). Early Maladaptive Schemas are self-defeating emotional and cognitive patterns that begin early in our development and repeat throughout life. According to this definition, an individual’s behaviour is not part of the schema itself; Young theorizes that “maladaptive behaviours develop as responses to a schema”. Thus behaviours are driven by schemas but are not part of schemas.
According to our model, internal schemas lie at the core of personality disorders and the behavioural patterns in DSM-IV are primarily responses to the core schemas. For most DSM-IV categories, the coping behaviours are the personality disorders. Many diagnostic criteria are lists of coping responses”.
In our fifteen years of clinical observations on more than 2000 subjects, we clearly saw that the personality disorders of the DSM IV, as behavioural pattern, is connected to the subtypes rather than the types that are linked to the cognitive and emotional core schemas.
For example, type 6 is the schema of vulnerability. If the subtype is more introverted, the individual will surrender to his schema (phobic 6), and if he is more extroverted he will counter attack his schema (counter phobic 6). The type 7 is the schema of self-sacrifice. If the subtype is introverted, he will surrender to the schema (sacrifice) and if he is extroverted he will counter attack it (counter sacrifice or epicurean). It’s exactly the same with the nine types as we already stated earlier (#EM 206). Note that we have adapted Jeffrey Young schema therapy to our new enneagram model, and our results show slight differences.
Type 9 and the Subjugation Schema
According to Jeffrey Young (J. Young. Schema Therapies ) some characteristics of the Subjugation Schema are :
Excessive surrendering of control to others because one feels coerced—submitting in
order to avoid anger, retaliation, or abandonment. The two major forms of subjugation
A. Subjugation of needs: Suppression of one’s preferences, decisions, and desires.
B. Subjugation of emotions: Suppression of emotions, especially anger.
Usually involves the perception that one’s own desires, opinions, and feelings are
not valid or important to others. Frequently presents as excessive compliance, combined
with hypersensitivity to feeling trapped. Generally leads to a build up of anger, manifested
in maladaptive symptoms (e.g., passive–aggressive behaviour, uncontrolled outbursts of
temper, psychosomatic symptoms, withdrawal of affection, “acting out,” substance
In our work with the Schema Therapies and Enneagram this Subjugation schema is related to the type 9.
As we already mentioned, if we are an Extraverted type we tend to overcompensate the schema, in the case of an Introverted type we will submit to the schema.
The type 9 Counter Subjugation :
As a result we can have very assertive or domineering 9s (counter subjugation ), in opposition to the 9s Yin (introverted ) that is more related to the common description of the 9 (passivity, avoidance, narcotization, suppressed anger and so on… )
The classical bias is also to associate Introverted people with the type 5, or 6 (except the counter phobic ) or 4 or 9 and Extroverted people with some 8 or 1 or 7…
Most of the time the type 9 Yang or Extrovert tend to be associated with 8 or 1 (Mandala, Malala Yousafzai, Charles de Gaulle, Helmut Kohl, Hitchcock, etc… )
We will see also that the Subtype Space is very similar to the type 9 and very often people who belong to this Family type themselves in this type. See the example of Gandhi who is classically type in the 9, but is , according to our work a Head Center, type 7 Yin and Space Family (the type 9 is only a cofixation ). And there are so many !!( French President Hollande, JP SArtre, etc… )
Some characteristics of this Space family (see more details in the next article in Enneagram Monthtly ) :
Awakening, Space, Emptiness and fullness, Timelessness and impermanence, Silence, Immobility, Infinity, Present moment, Presence, Spirituality, Contemplative and meditative, Calm, Simplicity, Humility, “Normality”, Peace as vital importance, Unprejudiced conscience, Impartiality, Spacious mind, inclusive and reassuring.
Disconnection, lack of earth and grounding, Disembodiment, Disintegration, Fear of the unknown and of the other, Closed mind, lack of communication, Solitude, Shyness, Do not like to put themselves forward, Escape from reality, avoidance, denial, ignorance, inertia, Escape the conflict and the confrontation, Numbness, Catatonia, Narcotization and Anesthesia of the senses and the mind, Made the deaf and the blind, Sloth and indolence,” I don’t care” attitude, Need for security and routine to overcome anxiety, Schizoid tendency.
I would like to make with you a little journey through the Ennagram, to can explore the Anger in all its forms and see where we can find it, in its purest remotest corners, where we even cannot imagine to find it. In life anger takes so many forms, so as in Enneagram, that becames a good place to hide and seek and dress up its best disguise…
First at all, the Anger, from my early learning, was stated to be in the Gut Center, that is not completely wrong as we henceforth know that the type 8 and 1 are on the taoist element of Fire that correspond to the red Anger in opposition of the Wood that corresponds to the green Anger and to the type 7 and 2 .
Considering the Hippocratic elements we can see also that the 8 and 1 are on the bilious Temperament, called also Choleric Temperament.
Thus a brief overview show us already that the 1,2,7,8 types are directly connected to the Anger.
And what about the 3, the 4, the 5 and the 6, oh , I was forgetting the 9 !!
Let us roll up our sleeves, and go for a little descent into the bowels of Enneagram !
Here is the 4, last type seated in the Center of the Anger , according to the sufi, on the point called, excess of Bile/anger. The Bagua shows also the Wood Yin Element for the 4 that corresponds to suppressed anger and irritabitlity. We can find for the 4 a lot of Anger and mainly suppressed anger that is reinforced by the fact that 4 is also on the very withdrawn taoist Metal/melancholic Element, quite a program for the 4 !!!
And what about the 3 ?
For him the Bagua indicates the Trigram ” the Thunder” that correspond to the Wood Yang (expressed Anger ), so as the Tree of Life with the Sphere of Hesed representing a King on the throne and the Planet JUpiter ! Zeus … the God of thunder!
What else, before closing the lid !!!
Of course we could say that the 5, 6 and 9 are a priori more quiet and peaceful, mainly the very centered 5, among the all, and his cousin the peaceful 9, but actually no, if we consider the famous Subtype Vajra or SX/male, that I would like to present to you more… and that can be combined with EVERY types !!!
The SX/Male Subtype or VAJRA Family
About two years after we had started our research and had examined several hundred clinical cases according to our energy-based method, we realized that what we defined as sexual subtypes, were actually two very distinct characters, a more masculine and a more feminine one. We agreed to name them Mars and Venus in reference to the symbolism of these gods of Greek Antiquity.
The sexual Mars subtype appears as an aggressive, combative, competitive, energetic, anxious and obsessive individual while the sexual Venus subtype is more charming, charismatic, compassionate, dependent and prone to forsaken feeling. (See more in EM, issue 200 )
This Sx/male Subtype, called also VAJRA, that means the Thunder in Sanskrit.
Let’s quote Irini Rokwell, disciple of the renown Tibetan Buddhist master Chögyam Trungpa (article from Shambala Sun) :
“Of the many methods for understanding and working with the energies that pervade our existence, one of the most profound is the “five Buddha families,” an ancient Buddhist system of understanding enlightened mind and its various aspects. The five Buddha family framework is an instrumental component in Buddhist Tantra, a path of working with and transmuting mind energy.
The Buddha families are traditionally displayed as the mandala of the five Tathagatas, or Buddhas. The mandala (from the Sanskrit for “circle”) aids meditators in understanding how different aspects of existence operate together in an integrated whole. Each of the Buddhas in the mandala embodies one of the five different aspects of enlightenment. However, these manifest themselves not only as enlightened energies but also as neurotic states of mind. The Buddha families therefore present us with a complete picture of both the sacred world of enlightened mind and the neurotic world of ego-centered existence. We see that they are indeed the same thing; the path of awakening is what makes the difference”
In the early 1970s Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche taught for the first time these traditional system of the five wisdom energies to contemporary American practitioners as a way of understanding who we are fundamentally: our personality, our emotional landscape, and how we relate to others and our world. He promoted the understanding that there is nothing inherently wrong or bad about the energy itself. He taught that to bring the wisdom energies to the path, we first learn to stay with them through mindfulness and awareness. Then we can work with these energies as they arise in our experience by applying loving-kindness. We allow them to express themselves openly rather than trying fruitlessly to manipulate and control them. The energies then become a way of celebrating our strengths and working with our weaknesses.
Vajra Family in the Buddhist tradition corresponds to Anger and Fear and to Clarity of mind and Peace in its awakened aspect.
Wisdom family : Vajra . “The first Buddha family is the Vajra family, which literally means the family of sharpness, crystallization, and indestructibility. In the ordinary world, the experience of Vajra is perhaps not as extremes holding razor blades in our hand, but at the same time, it is penetrating and very personal. It is like a sharp, cutting, biting-cold winter. A person in the Vajra family knows how to evaluate logically the arguments that are used to explain experience. The neurotic expression of Vajra is associated with anger and intellectual fixation. If we become fixated on a particular logic, the sharpness of Vajra can become rigidity. We become possessive of our insight, rather than having a sense of open perspective. Clear water suggests the sharp, precise, clear reflectiveness of vajra wisdom. In fact, Vajra wisdom is traditionally called the mirror like wisdom, which evokes this image of a calm pondor reflecting pool” (Chögyam Trungpa, Journey without a goal).
Clarity, faculty of reasoning, logic and scientific mind, intelligence, quick and sharp mind, faculty of reasoning, deep and penetrating vision, frankness, sense of justice, pacification, order, discipline, precision, sobriety, purification.
Negative aspects :
Hot or cold anger, hatred, aggression, choleric tempered, bruiser and fighter, feeling of injustice and rebellion, freezing fear, mental fixation and dogmatism, stiffness, hardness, and dogmatism, obsession and psychorigidity, intellectualization and excess of analysis, right and wrong attitude, impatience, distance, coldness.
This particular subtype can be confounded with the type 8 and 1 of the Enneagram and also we can find some cases of 4, who are actually Sx/male Yin or Jungian Introverted Intuition (see our article on this blog on Frida Kalho and Johnny Depp )
This subtype is also related to the Jungian Function of Intuition and to the Rigid character structure of Wilhem Reich.
Some famous cases of Sx/Mars :
Klaus Kinski, Paul Newman, Jack Nicholson, Michael Douglas, Mel Gibson, Van Gogh , Beethoven, Demi Moore, Madonna, Che Guevara, Sarah Palin, Margaret Albright, A. Hitler, etc…
A complete and in depth article will be published very soon in EM : ” Subtypes : for a paradigm shift and integrative view “.
This article will re define types and subtypes in that sense:
- Nine types and five subtypes are two separate systems that mix together like abscissa and ordinate to define the character of an individual.
- Both types and subtypes can be defined through a whole spectrum from pathology to psychological and spiritual qualities.
- Types are more connected to cognitive and emotional level (schema); subtypes are more connected to behavioral response.
Be patient !
A diffential decoding :
Usualy Johnny Depp and Frida Kalh are typed in the 4 in the Enneagram schools.
We will see in this article how a type 4, called the “Artist”, can be confounded with a type SX5.
According to our decoding, Frida and Johnny Depp are both on the point 5 of the Head Center, called also the “Observer”.
The point of Apathy :
This type is on the point of dysfunction of the Vatta/desire humor in lack (the 7 is on the excess of Vatta/desire, while the 6 is on the absence of ).
“This lack of Desire, or deficiency in our natural lust, indicating a hot and moist temper, are apathy in regard to food, sex and work, that is we are weak in our attraction to pleasure. We fall into timidity and despair, impassively indifferent to what is going on around us. We lack zest, becoming miserly and obstinate as we retreat from life. We may have an inferiority complex which causes us to be self depreciating and lacking in self confidence. Lacking self esteem, we become spiritless and timid. ” (Laleh Bakhtiar, R.O.S.E )
The Introverted Intuition :
As we know, all type can be combined with “Subtypes”, here the Sx/male., that is related in our work to the Intuition Jungian Function and to the obessive and rigid character of W Reich. (see more in our next article in EM on the Subtypes. )
This Intuition Function, can be Extroverted or Introverted. In the case of the Introverted Intuition , Jung himself descrided very precise characteristics in. his ” Psychological types” . As you will see, this function is very similar to the 4 (the damned artist, the unappreciated genius ). In our observation, many SX/male Yin or Introvertion /Intuition are type in the 4 !!! :
” The peculiar nature of introverted intuition, when given the priority, also produces a peculiar type of man, viz. the mystical dreamer and seer on the one hand, or the fantastical crank and artist on the other. The latter might be regarded as the normal case, since there is a general tendency of this type to confine himself to the perceptive character of intuition. As a rule, the intuitive stops at perception; perception is his principal problem, and — in the case of a productive artist-the shaping of perception. But the crank contents himself with the intuition by which he himself is shaped and determined. Intensification of intuition naturally often results in an extraordinary aloofness of the individual from tangible reality; he may even become a complete enigma to his own immediate circle. [p. 509]
If an artist, he reveals extraordinary, remote things in his art, which in iridescent profusion embrace both the significant and the banal, the lovely and the grotesque, the whimsical and the sublime. If not an artist, he is frequently an unappreciated genius, a great man ‘gone wrong’, a sort of wise simpleton, a figure for ‘psychological’ novels.
Although it is not altogether in the line of the introverted intuitive type to make of perception a moral problem, since a certain reinforcement of the rational functions is required for this, yet even a relatively slight differentiation of judgment would suffice to transfer intuitive perception from the purely æsthetic into the moral sphere. A variety of this type is thus produced which differs essentially from its æsthetic form, although none the less characteristic of the introverted intuitive. The moral problem comes into being when the intuitive tries to relate himself to his vision, when he is no longer satisfied with mere perception and its æsthetic shaping and estimation, but confronts the question: What does this mean for me and for the world? What emerges from this vision in the way of a duty or task, either for me or for the world? The pure intuitive who represses judgment or possesses it only under the spell of perception never meets this question fundamentally, since his only problem is the How of perception. He, therefore, finds the moral problem unintelligible, even absurd, and as far as possible forbids his thoughts to dwell upon the disconcerting vision. It is different with the morally orientated intuitive. He concerns himself with the meaning of his vision; he troubles less about its further æsthetic possibilities than about the possible moral effects which emerge from its intrinsic significance. His judgment allows him to discern, though often only darkly, that he, as a man and as a totality, is in some way inter-related with his vision, that [p. 510] it is something which cannot just be perceived but which also would fain become the life of the subject. Through this realization he feels bound to transform his vision into his own life. But, since he tends to rely exclusively upon his vision, his moral effort becomes one-sided; he makes himself and his life symbolic, adapted, it is true, to the inner and eternal meaning of events, but unadapted to the actual present-day reality. Therewith he also deprives himself of any influence upon it, because he remains unintelligible. His language is not that which is commonly spoken — it becomes too subjective. His argument lacks convincing reason. He can only confess or pronounce. His is the ‘voice of one crying in the wilderness’.
The introverted intuitive’s chief repression falls upon the sensation of the object. His unconscious is characterized by this fact. For we find in his unconscious a compensatory extraverted sensation function of an archaic character. The unconscious personality may, therefore, best be described as an extraverted sensation-type of a rather low and primitive order. Impulsiveness and unrestraint are the characters of this sensation, combined with an extraordinary dependence upon the sense impression. This latter quality is a compensation to the thin upper air of the conscious attitude, giving it a certain weight, so that complete ‘sublimation’ is prevented. But if, through a forced exaggeration of the conscious attitude, a complete subordination to the inner perception should develop, the unconscious becomes an opposition, giving rise to compulsive sensations whose excessive dependence upon the object is in frank conflict with the conscious attitude. The form of neurosis is a compulsion-neurosis, exhibiting symptoms that are partly hypochondriacal manifestations, partly hypersensibility of the sense organs and partly compulsive ties to definite persons or other objects. [p. 511] “
[ Web Source: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Jung/types.htm ]
In our next article you will see that this “Subtype” is also related to the Vajra Family.
This Vajra Family corresponds to the Anger, the hate, the fear also, and its awakened qualities is the Clarity of Mind and the Peace.
We can say that this Sx/male or Vajra Family is in some ways incompatible with the “lack of Desire ” 5, or apathic 5…. It is the reason why, we think, this type 5 becomes quite unseen with such a subtype… Anger, irritability is much more a characteristic of the 4 than of the 5…
The 72 Archetypes, or Genius:
One more important thing I wanted to see with you is the keywords for the SX /male Introverted 5 , that we find in our work on the 72 Archetypes of the Enneagram, called also Genius or Angel in the Christian tradition
Each Archetype or Genius is the combiantion of the core type with the core “Subtype”.
Here we have the type 5, then the SX/Male YIn (or Introverted SX/male ).
The corresponding Archetype/Angel is ALADIA whose keywords are : asceticism, austerity, mortification, maniaco depressive autopersécution, solitude, transcendence.
This Genius or Angel Aladia is also known for protecting people against natural catastrophes such as fire, explosion, accidents. When we know the life of Frida and that she escaped death in a car crash, when 22 others people died… She endured operations many months in hospital and after the incapacity of giving birth to her child. I would also say that difficult life, are not the reality only of the 4s, of course, as I often can see it (she has a hard life, so she is a 4, etc… )
Generally speaking, according to our work , all the Sx 5 are in the rubric : inventiveness, progressivism, avant gardisme, creativity.
They are very unconventional people who are very ahead of their time…. and also very misunderstood genius or avant -gardist artists, such as the Spanish Architect Antoni Gaudí, or the philosopher Friedisch Nietzsche , etc…
The full Enneagramic configuration for Frida and Johnny Depp :
These two artists seem to have a lot of similitudes in their configuration :
Main type : 5
Wing : 4
Cofixations or minor types : 4 and 1 (may be 8 for Frida )
Subtype : Sx/male Introverted
The arrows 8 and 7 are very presents too, mainly the 8 in Frida…